The Mailbag!Write the Gazette at email@example.com
Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 05:04:56 -0800
From: "Fields, Aubrey", Aubrey.Fields@PSS.Boeing.com
Subject: I have two ideas for articles.
I am a new user to the Linux community. I have two ideas for articles that I would read, print, and distribute to the other Linux newbees that I know.
1. PPP using minicom. I have read several articles on using PPP, pppd, minicom and other dialup and networking issues. Being a new, however, I would find it very valuable to read "the definitive new users guide to configuring PPP on Linux". I've gotten a lot of pointers and some advanced tips, but what I'd like to see is how to setup a stand alone Linux 2.0.x machine (Red Hat v4 in my case) for dialing up via PPP using minicom with dhcp and dns provided by an ISP.
2. basic xfree86 / fvwm95 config tricks. For example, how to change the word "start" on the menu button at the bottom of fvwm95 to ANYTHING else! I kick Bill Gate off my PC for a reason! I don't find it cute, funny, nor reassuring to see the "I want to be windows95 'Start'" button on my Linux machine.
also, how to use icons, get rid of the "virtual" desktop so that I can see my entire window without scrolling.
Thank you very much, the Linux Gazette has proven to be a valuable resource!
Date: Wed, 02 Dec 1998 13:33:11 PST
From: David Camara, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: connecting to novell 3.12 servers...
Hi, I'm trying to connect to netware 3.12 servers. I am using the IPX module and ncpfs 18.104.22.168-1 (for Debian 2.0). Now, I don't use the auto_primary and auto_interface since a number of old posts recommend adding the ipx interface manually.
ipx_interface add -p eth0 802.3 xxxxxxxxWhen I cat /proc/net/ipx_interface:
Network Node_Address Primary Device Frame_Type xxxxxxxx yyyyyyyyyyyy Yes eth0 802.3When I try to slist, I get:
slist: No server found in ncp_openWhen I try to mount a Novell volume using:
ncpmount -S server_name -U user_name -V sys /mnt/ncpI get:
ncpmount: No server found when trying to find server_nameAll this as su root... Any ideas? Thanks!
Date: Tue, 8 Dec 1998 12:16:20 -0500
From: Blazek, Daniel, email@example.com
Which Ethernet cards are compatible with Linux with minimum ease of installation, also does the make/model of the hub matter?
Date: Tue, 15 Dec 1998 12:29:37 +0000
From: Tomos Llewelyn, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: "Unable to open console..." Why?
Can anyone tell me why I'm getting this message?
Trying to boot a 2.0.36 kernel on a PII350 with an ATI Xpert@Play 8Mb AGP card. Should I be tweaking the video mode?
Date: Mon, 14 Dec 1998 12:46:57 -0500
From: Michael Bright email@example.com
Subject: Token Ring Errors with SuSE 5.3
Hi, I would seriously appreciate any help you can give. I had the evaluation copy of SuSE 5.3 running fine on this machine. I loaded the full version of SuSE 5.3 and the Token ring went south. During install everything went fine, including loading the token ring module. I have replaced the ibmtr.o module file from a working machine with _no_ change in the error. I also checked the /etc/conf.modules file to make sure the alias is defined right ( alias tr0 ibmtr.o ) and the options line is right ( options ibmtr io=0xa20 ). At this point I see two options, reload the machine with the eval copy and do an upgrade or recompile the kernel and hope for the best.
initialising tr0 general protection: 0000 CPU: 0 EIP: 0010:[<02816961>] EFLAGS: 00010212 eax: 00000003 ebx: 0009e658 ecx: fffffff7 edx: 00000000 esi: f000f84d edi: 00000003 ebp: 00000000 esp: 019b7e0c ds: 0018 es: 0018 fs: 002b gs: 002b ss: 0018 Process insmod (pid: 66, process nr: 16, stackpage=019b7000) Stack: 0009e658 00000000 00000003 019b7e4c 00000008 0010ca1c 00000003 00000000 019b7e4c 019b7e4c 00000003 00000000 0009e658 0010bae1 00000003 019b7e4c 001f9b7c fffffff7 00108e00 00000003 00000000 0009e658 ffffff50 00000018 Call Trace: [<0010ca1c>] [<0010bae1>] [<0010cb9d>] [<0281694c>] [<0010cc10>] [<028183d8>] [<0281668b>] [<0281694c>] [<02817bca>] [<028183d8>] [<028178bd>] [<001be7fb>] [<028183d8>] [<02818304>] [<028183d3>] [<028178ca>] [<028183d8>] [<00115c3c>] [<02817868>] [<028178f0>] [<00111748>] [<0011162c>] [<0010a950>] [<0010a7c5>] Code: 0f b6 56 2f 83 fa 01 0f 84 9e 07 00 00 83 fa 02 0f 85 a9 07 Aiee, killing interrupt handlerOS: SuSE 5.3 Hardware: IBM ISA Auto 16/4 Tokenring adapter.
Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 14:33:55 -0600
From: David Caliguire, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: Driver for Netflex III card on Linux
I noticed a question posed to the Gazette about drivers for Netflex 3 cards on Compaq on Linux. I have a Compaq with this card and would like to know where I could get a driver for this card for Linux.......
Date: Wed, 16 Dec 1998 16:06:42 -0300
From: Saltiel, Hernan Claudio, email@example.com
Subject: Help Wanted!!!
I have a Linux box, with S.u.S.E., and a Lotus Notes server. I want to e-mail the status of my workstation to another user that belongs to the Notes Network. Does anybody know how to do that, or just the concepts to do this?
Hern´n Claudio Saltiel
Date: Sun, 13 Dec 1998 14:35:20 -0500
From: John, firstname.lastname@example.org
I am looking for some inexpensive Accounting w/Inventory Software that will run on Linux . If you could point me in the right direction I would be greatly thankful
Date: Thu, 24 Dec 1998 14:47:09 +0200
From: "tdk001", email@example.com
Subject: Linux and UNIX
I am a 2nd year computer science student. I have looked everywhere for the answer and found only basic answers. My question is what exactly is the difference between Linux and UNIX, excluding size and speed. I would appreciate it if you could just send me a few of the differences.
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 1998 12:33:42 -0000
From: "James Jackson", firstname.lastname@example.org
Does anybody know how to enable the wheel on an Intellimouse under Linux? (Red Hat 5.2)
Date: Sat, 19 Dec 1998 13:53:33 PST
From: "Thomas Smith", email@example.com
Subject: Upgrading Red Hat
I just installed Red Hat 5.0 and I hear about the newer versions out there and I want to upgrade but I don't want to buy a brand new CD or download everything and then re-install. I have been to a couple of sites and I have found no real help for this at any of them, so could you please help me out. Thank you.
Date: Fri, 18 Dec 1998 23:20:12 -0800
From: Taro Fukunaga, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: How to get CPU info
I am writing a Tcl/Tk program that prints info about the CPU, memory usage, processes, and disk usage of a Linux computer. On problem I have is in getting info about the CPU. Because the contents (ie field names) of /proc/cpuinfo may vary from one machine (perhaps kernel build is the right answer) to the next, I decided to use the program uname. However, this also doesn't work well, and simply lists my processor as "unknown". I looked at the source code, and "unknown" is the default value for the CPU!
So my question is, is there any way to write a program that can get the type of CPU on any Linux computer?
Thank you, anyone.
Date: Thu, 31 Dec 1998 21:19:48 -0600
Subject: Does Linux have multimedia support?
I just finished reading Marjorie Richardson's comments about Linux in the January '99 issue of Computer Shopper, and I was wondering if Linux now has, or will support any of the multimedia formats supported by Windows, such as AVI, JPG, WAV, MOV, etc? I have looked into some of the basics of the OS, but I have not tried to install it. Thank you.
Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 14:03:42 -0500
From: Soraia Paz, email@example.com
Subject: LILO Problems
I originally had Windows NT on my PC with some room left for Linux. I installed Linux and I set up LILO to boot both operating systems. I got into Linux fine but when I tried to get into NT it kept on crashing. I tried using DOS's fdisk to get rid of Linux but LILO is still there. How can I get rid of it?
Date: Wed, 30 Dec 1998 09:42:23 -0600
From: Bill McConnaughey, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: DB9 serial port
I degraded my floppy disk drive, apparently by doing fdformat with inappropriate parameters and/or media. In order to back up my work, I want to use minicom or seyon to transfer files over the DB-9 serial port. I can get the computers to type to each other, but file transfer protocols (xmodem and ymodem) don't work. There is no Kermit in my installation and I don't know where to get it. What is the correct wiring for a direct connection of the DB-9 com ports on two pc's? How can I transfer files?
Date: Tue, 29 Dec 1998 10:40:15 -0500 (EST)
I have a jamicon 36X cd player.
It doesn't work under Linux. I tried to install Linux but I failed.
Could you please help me with this. I also need to say that you can set my cd-player master,slave and CSEL with a jumper.
Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 03:49:21 -0500
From: "david marcelle", email@example.com
Subject: Audio-Only CDRs
Do you have for sale or do you know where I can purchase audio-only blank CDRs (for my phillips CD recorder) for $4.00 each or less?
Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 02:15:26 -0500
From: "Clayton J. Ramseyer", firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: IP Masquerading and related
I am writing this message to you, because I am new to Linux. (I love it by the way) Anyway, I have a small LAN setup at home and would like to provide access to the Internet for my other machine.
The HOWTO is a bit confusing when it comes to setting this up.
If someone could write me with a possible offer for help, I'd surely appreciate it.
The commands I have are probably correct. Yet the HOWTOs don't mention which machine these commands are entered on.
I assume it would be the machine connected to the net.
By the way, I connect with a USR 56K v.90 compatible modem. My service provider is earthlink.
I look forward to your responses.
Date: Sat, 2 Jan 1999 23:05:13 +0530
From: "L.V.Gandhi", email@example.com
Subject: Netscape help
I have installed NC4.5 for Linux. I could edit preferences both as root and an user. Once closed and then restarted I am unable to do that. I am not sure from when it happened. It may be due improper shutdown due to power outage or hanging of nc after many windows are open. I have system PII with 780MB partition for Linux with 64 MB swap space, 32 MB ram. Is there any easy way to remove an installed software and reinstall it in Linux?
Date: Sat, 2 Jan 1999 23:03:35 +0530
From: "L.V.Gandhi", firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: help for microsoft intellimouse
I have installed RH5.0 and upgraded to 5.1. I have Microsoft intellimouse and logitech super mouse. when I configure mi, the same is not recognized by Linux and xserver. The same is recognized in win98. But logi mouse is recognized in both. Any solutions welcome.
Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 13:39:58 -0500
From: Brad Gerrard, email@example.com
Subject: The Future Of Artificial Intelligence and Linux
Can you imagine, 'eureka' you've done it, you're going to make millions neigh billions, you've created a programme that gives a computer the seeming ability to think.
There it is flashing away 'walking the walk', bezazz it thinks.
Hold on a moment the operating system, no the skeleton of this thinking machine has crashed.
What say you, shall we change the operating system? Not arf we will.
How about something a little more stable, how about an operating system that will go for at least a year. Is that to much to ask? One might well wonder were we not acquainted with the genie in the bottle, yes 'Linux'.
Linux is gaining in popularity, that makes it commercial, that means money, and money means more thinkers are turning their attention towards it as a viable alternative to some of it's less exciting competition. Linux is a stable operating system, freely available, an operating system for Man All Born Equal as written in the American constitution, yes could this operating system level out the playing field.
Artificial Intelligence requires a very stable platform, and I believe that given the limitations of present day hardware, AI requires an operating system with a small foot print in order to possibly tackle the problem of achieving any potential of new thought, which could possibly be termed artificial intelligence in it's true sense. Linux is a Unix operating system, it can be and usually is networked, this is a plus when it comes to composing an AI operating programme.
The very makeup and variable structure lends it's self to AI.
Yes I believe that Linux is an operating system with a bright future.
Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 13:39:58 -0500
From: "Serge E. Hallyn", hallyn@CS.WM.EDU
Subject: happy hacking keyboard
wow. $140 for a keyboard because it has fewer keys? I simply don't think the arguments in favor make sense - namely that you don't have to reach for any keys, because you should never need to with other normal keyboards either. Let's see:
Date: Tue, 01 Dec 1998 12:28:06 -0600
From: Tim Kelley, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: Jeremy Dinsel's review of keyboard ...
He did not mention something which many people would be very interested in knowing - is it a clicking, spring action style keyboard or a membrane (mushy) style keyboard?
At that price (~$150), I can't believe it's one of those cheap membrane things, but one can never be sure. Actually, at that price, I can't believe anyone would buy it, but whatever.
Date: Wed, 2 Dec 1998 01:32:06 +1000 (GMT)
From: Norman Widders email@example.com
Subject: Linux Gazette
I just read David Jao's article in Linux Gazette #35 and enjoyed it. He had one fact wrong though, he mentioned:
Currently, a limitation of the UW IMAP server is that a folder cannot contain both messages and subfolders.This is not a limitation of the UOW server. It is a limitation of the default UNIX mail files... There are other available mailbox types available on the UNIX platform that will allow UOW to create subfolders... see the release notes with UOW for more info :)
Date: Tue, 1 Dec 1998 08:24:43 -0500 (EST)
From: Walt Taninatz, firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: Re: Linux Gazette #35
Thank you for the reminders and for making such a great magazine. The content is always useful, interesting and well written.
Date: Thu, 03 Dec 1998 13:52:14 -0800
From: Jauder Ho, email@example.com
Subject: Re: IMAP on Linux: A Practical Guide
I have some comments on the article written by David Jao. There are some inaccuracies that I need to correct. We use IMAP here and it is indeed excellent technology.
Date: Wed, 02 Dec 1998 08:46:18 +0100
From: "Thomas Diehl", firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: Editor's Choice Awards: Most Desired Port?
This is on your "Editor's Choice Awards", esp. the following from your article "Most Desired Port--QuarkXPress":
For layout, we must have an MS Windows 95 machine in order to run QuarkXPress... We are more than ready to be rid of this albatross and have a total Linux shop. Next, like everyone else, we'd like Adobe to port all its products to Linux.I'm a professional DTPer and a Linux user myself. So I would certainly like to see the whole Acrobat suite for Linux as well as good font and printing solutions from Adobe. And, of course, I don't have anything against porting PM, Frame, PShop, Illustrator, or XPress to the penguin platform. No doubt about it.
I find it problematic, however, that hardly anybody in the DTP area seems to do justice to the fact that there is a complete suite for our kind of work coming up just NOW: Corel promised repeatedly to port _all_ their DTP programs to Linux: Ventura, Draw, PhotoPaint as well as a lot of helpful apps like WordPerfect and their whole Office suite. (See eg www.zdnet.co.uk/news/1998/45/ns-6073.html)
This would be an incredible step forward for Linux -- but somehow nobody in DTP seems to care. I wonder why?
Of course, I'm fully aware of the bad reputation Corel software has among DTPers (and also how much of this they deserved). But I can assure you and everybody from daily, first hand experience that the situation has incredibly improved over the last years. Today the Corel DTP apps brings a wealth of functionality to the users that, as a whole, is unmatched by anything I know in this area.
I'm also aware that this will not be enough to make XPress users really consider a switch and that they have perfectly good reasons for this attitude. But, nevertheless, I would appreciate it VERY much if the Corel announcements would at least be taken into account when talking about this area. If Corel keep their promise there will be a complete publishing suite for Linux very soon. And I would ask everybody to spread the good news, esp. those who may be held "opinion leaders" by many people out there. I'm sure it would be a real loss for everybody if Corel would get second thoughts about their plans because of apparent "lack of demand" among professional DTPers.
Just in case you are prepared to look a little more at this I'm attaching some more material on the aptness of Corel DTP software.
We use many of Corel's products including Ventura (for book layout). Editor's choice is after all my opinion only, but I do know that many magazines besides Linux Journal use QuarkXPress for layout. --Editor
Date: Tue, 8 Dec 1998 16:30:53 -0500
From: "Adams, Ranald", Ranald.Adams@ctny.com
There's a lot of this sort of thing on Compaq's forum. Please publish to interested parties so that they can become subject to the appropriate level of ridicule (in a caring, motivationally productive kind of way).
Topic: Servers - Banyan-Unix Subject: Linux and Compaq Servers From: COMPAQ - Robert G 05/11/98 09:10:13 Compaq now or in the future will not be providing Linux drivers. This is because the Linux operating system is a public domain OS. There is not a single source of ownership to go to when trying to resolve OS issues like there is for SCO Unix and other versions of Unix on the market. Because there is no single source for the compiled binary code required to install and run the OS there is no way to guarantee driver compatibility with all the flavors of Linux.
Compaq Engineering has decided that they will not provide or release hardware drivers unless they can be fully certified and supported. Since Linux does not have a single source manufacture, this is not possible with Linux. But you can by all means make a formal request in writing to Compaq Engineering concerning your need for Linux drivers. The address is:
Compaq Computer Corp.
Attn. Engineering Dept.
20555 State Hwy. 249
Houston, TX 77070 b4
Date: Sat, 5 Dec 1998 10:53:00 -0800
From: Mike Wiley, email@example.com
Subject: Corel Ventura would be best DTP port
I agree that Linux needs a DTP program, but the one which should be desired is Corel Ventura Publisher, not Quark. CVP version 8 is at least one generation ahead of Quark and include many features which we use regularly =97 features which are completely absent from Quark. It is more powerful and easier to use. From my perspective, Quark shows all the signs of product arrogance which arises from having a monopoly, or near monopoly, in a field.
Another point: Corel Corp has made a commitment to Linux. Adobe and Quark, to my knowledge have not. Why not support those who support you, especially when those who support you have the best product?
Just a couple of thoughts...
We support Corel in every way we can, but Quark is more suited for our purposes in printing the magazine than is Ventura. Corel's NetWinder will be featured on the April Linux Journal cover. --Editor
Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 14:19:43 -0500
From: "Nils Lohner", firstname.lastname@example.org
Subject: Debian Powers 512 Node Cluster into Book of Records
Over 512 computers were assembled for the CLOWN (CLuster Of Working Nodes) system that ran on the night of December 5-6. This cluster used a modified version of the Debian GNU/Linux distribution (reduced in size to a mere 16 MB, and boot script modifications) to run a combination of PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and several application programs. These programs included povray (a ray tracing program used to calculate frames for a film), Cactus, a program that solves the Einstein Equations, which are ten non-linear joint hyperbolic-elliptical partial differential equations. These are used to describe Black Holes, Neutron Stars, etc. and are among the most complex in the field of mathematical Physics.
For more information, please visit the following sites (mostly in German):
Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 02:31:14 -0500
From: Paul Iadonisi, email@example.com
Subject: Re: USENIX LISA Vendor Exhibit trip report
There were a lot of what I call "Want-Ad" booths to. Collective Technologies (formerly Pencom System Administration), Sprint Paranet, Fidelity, and several other companies there for sole reason of trying to recruit people.Hmmm. I take exception to this. We (Collective Technologies) have many reasons for being at LISA. Like any business, we work to get name recognition. We want people to know who we are. But we also seek to educate our members (look in the rear of the Attendee List for the list by company and you will see how many of us went -- I think we have the largest number of attendees) and give back to the System Administration community at large. Take a look at the Technical Talks and BoFs and you will find four events each sponsored by a Collective Technologies member. Five of our members also wrote summaries for SANS in the August issue of ;login:.
I hope no one sees this as a marketing message and my intention is not to try to sell my company on a Linux mailing list. The point is that we do all of this without tootin' our own horn that much. I think reducing our booth to a "Want-Ad" type booth is a little unfair. I normally wouldn't post a message like this on this list, but couldn't let the '...there for sole reason of trying to recruit people...' comment pass, especially since we were the first company listed. No ill will, I just wanted to clear that up.
You must be clairvoyant! :-) That article is just being posted in this issue. Of course, it's on Paul's web site, but to know to send a copy of your letter to me. Wow! --Editor
Date: Fri, 11 Dec 1998 20:09:57 -0500
From: Kevin Forge, firstname.lastname@example.org
Most Desired Port--QuarkXPress
Hate to say it but "BUY A MAC". Mind you I don't like the Mac. I don't use a Mac. I don't even like the few occasions when I must attempt to repair a Mac ( often it's cheaper to ditch it than buy parts ).
All this considered even Microsoft uses Quark on a Mac to do it's manuals and stuff. As far as I know a Mac used in this post may never crash. Sure Mac OS isn't Linux quality in terms of stability but it beets NT.
In the mean time whine for a port ... It may never happen though since even the windows port is 1/2 harted, unstable and not quite what the printers want ( they all use Macs. )
We started out with a Mac but at that time it wasn't as easy to network a Mac with Linux as it now is with Netatalk. So the decision was made to go with Windows. It happens. --Editor
Date: Tue, 22 Dec 1998 21:13:56 -0600
From: Sam, email@example.com
gts global >>myoldkh<< 12-22-98 09:15:32 PM:You will be very pleased to know that yesterday I made a credit card order on the Web for a copy of the Linux OS from one of your sponsors - Red Hat Software.
I support quality web sites and their sponsors! (I am also sick and tired of MS Windows crashing my computer all of the time - I think that Microsoft writes software about the same way that GM builds cars - I know cause I drive a Pontiac lemon!)
Date: Thu, 17 Dec 1998 19:46:04 -0600 (EST)
From: "Michael J. Hammel", firstname.lastname@example.org
From LG Editor:
I get at least one letter a month asking that we change the quote in the logo to be attributed directly to Gandhi rather than a movie actor, as well as ones requesting that the graphic be made smaller. What do you think? Is it time to make either of these changes?
I'll look at making the image smaller, but it may not be till next month. I'm still getting things back together at home.
As to the quote, I'll stick to the attribution until someone provides a definitive resource that attributes it to Gandhi. I'm fairly certain he would have said it, but I don't want to give him the attribution unless I can find some other resource to back it up. After all, I only know about it because of a movie.
I have no objection to changing it - I just need some other definitive attribution to do so.
Date: Mon, 28 Dec 1998 16:46:13 -0800
From: Randy Herrick, HERRICK@PACBELL.NET
Subject: graphics on title page
Great site, just one thing, I think Tux needs to look like, well, the real Tux, in real Tux colors. In the beginning there were several kinds of birds from seagulls to penguins, but I think nowadays most everyone has adopted the standard Tux penguin that is siting down (looking happy from eating herring-as Linus Torvald's put it )in the black and white and yellow colors. We need to have a standard logo for Linux, don't you think? Thanks for your time. :)
As far as graphics go, I trust Michael's judgment in all things--even the way Tux is drawn. --Editor
Date: Sun, 27 Dec 1998 13:38:52 -0600
From: Lyno Sullivan, email@example.com
Subject: MPDN - Minnesota Public Digital Network
I would appreciate your support of the following
initiative. Specifically, I will need the help of
the free software community during discussions of
item 4 and the excerpt listed below:
December 27, 1998
The full MPDN announcement may be viewed at: http://www.freedomain.org/^lls/free-mn/19981222-mpdn.html
This post constitutes an invitation to join discussions concerning the MPDN. Beginning in January, 1999, I will present each goal of the MPDN for discussion within the MN-NETGOV listserv. If you are a stake holder to these goals, please join the listserv.
Anyone can join that listserv by sending an email to
Members may view past messages, calendars, and other group features at:
In preparation for my requesting Legislative hearings in 1999, this article explains my vision of the Minnesota Public Digital Network (MPDN), which is:
1) to provide every Minnesota citizen with a secure and authenticated email address within the mn.us hierarchy,
2) to assure that every citizen can use email to dialogue with the elected and the appointed offices of government,
3) to assure that every local community has a high speed digital network and a repository for the creative works and letters of the Minnesota people, and
4) to collect the free software tools necessary to attain these goals, within the Government Information Freedom Toolbox (the GIFT), which will be created as a byproduct of Minnesota State government's conversion to free software.
GOAL 1) Effective immediately, freeze (at current levels or lower) all spending for non-free, closed source, software. Establish a Legislative audit to determine the Total Cost of Operation (TCO) costs of non-free server and desktop software. Establish a cost reduction plan that will result in the elimination of spending on non-free software. Collect all those monies, identified by the TCO analysis, together into a revolving Software Freedom Fund, to be administered by the Office of Technology. Require that all further purchases and upgrades of non-free, closed source server and desktop software must be approved by the Minnesota Office of Technology's, Information Policy Council (IPC). The IPC will be charged to develop a statewide model of the MPDN. The IPC will be charged to connect every public sector worker in Minnesota to the MPDN. Savings within the Software Freedom Fund may be spent on writing free software. Revenues of the Software Freedom Fund must be spent, to endow the creation of free software and free content, all of which, must be licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL) or a suitable copyleft license.